Orthodontics is the area of dental medicine that detects, prevents and corrects dental position anomalies that prevent correct occlusion, alignment and aesthetic dentistry.
Its purpose is to correct the function of the stomatognathic system and the recovery of dental and facial esthetics. It can be applied in children, young people, adults and in elderly patients. Among the many benefits of orthodontic / facial orthopedic treatment we can expect, in addition to functional occlusion, an improvement in dentofacial aesthetics and an increase in patient self-esteem.
In the vast majority of cases, during treatment, we have seen improvement in complaints of headache, muscle pain in the neck or shoulders and torticollis. By correcting the dental and bone position we reestablish the function and balance the entire Stomatognathic System. In children of school age, when we diagnose and correct occlusion anomalies we see the improvement of headaches.
The use of removable or fixed appliances should only be advised by your Dentist / Stomatologist, varying the need from case to case. Dental treatments in the field of orthodontics are increasingly popular among young people, unlike in the past. Nowadays, there is an increase in the demand for adults, who are increasingly aware of the improvements that orthodontics places on the quality of life, both for aesthetic results and for functional results.
There are 2 types of aparatologia, the mobile (or removable) and the fixed.
Mobile device: made of acrylic resin and orthodontic steel wire. In general, the treatment time is 12 months, but will depend mainly on the patient’s collaboration (not to lose, not to depart and use it as prescribed). They should only be removed from the mouth to eat.
Fixed Apparatus: with bands, brackets, bows and ligatures. It is possible to move the teeth in the three dimensions of the space and the patient does not remove the device so the effectiveness is greater.
a) Metallic: with brackets (parts that are attached to the teeth) metallic, is the most used device.
b) Porcelain: porcelain brackets are more discreet confusing with the teeth. They are usually those chosen by adults.
On average, the duration of treatment is two years. However this time may decrease or increase depending on the type of case and the patient’s collaboration (good hygiene, assiduity in the consultations, care in the mastication not to take off brackets).
After using the fixed appliance it is necessary to use restraint to ensure the stabilization of the teeth in the new position and thus not to risk the change in the result achieved.
Some malocclusions that can be solved with Orthodontics:
Dental crowding (teeth that rub each other)
Diastemas (spaces between teeth)
Deep bite (overbite)
What causes malocclusion?
Malocclusion can be caused by premature or late loss of milk teeth, enlarged tonsils and / or adenoids, predominant oral breathing, prolonged finger sucking or pacifiers, very large teeth and small jaw bones (leading to a lack of space to accommodate teeth), genetically inherited facial features (such as too small jaw or chin too far forward), atypical swallowing or dental anomalies.
Premature loss of milk teeth can lead to loss of tooth space and inclinations.
Do orthodontic appliances cause stains on teeth?
No. The appliance does not stain the teeth, because the spots on the enamel of the teeth can originate during the formation of the teeth (before their eruption due to illness or medication) due to trauma due to decalcification of the enamel due to poor oral hygiene and / or excessive consumption of soft drinks.
In orthodontic treatment, what are the benefits beyond aesthetics?
The main function of orthodontic treatment is to restore dental occlusion (perfect meshing of the upper and lower teeth) which is essential for proper mastication and, consequently, adequate nutrition and oral health. With the reestablishment of occlusion, problems of breathing, swallowing, speech and temporomandibular joint (A.T.M.) are prevented and treated.
Can the adult patient undergo treatment?
Yes. There is no maximum age for orthodontic treatment, although in the adult patient some special care should be taken, especially in relation to the supporting tissues of the teeth. Treatment may be slower and more limited due to periodontal problems, lack of teeth or greater impairment due to extensive prostheses or restorations.
If the parents have bad position of the teeth, the same can happen with the children?
Yes. Although genetics is one of the factors influencing the appearance of malocclusion in children, other factors can lead to orthodontic treatment such as: oral breathing, prolonged sucking on the finger or pacifier, atypical swallowing, early or late loss of milk teeth and dental anomalies.
Is it necessary to extract permanent teeth?
Usually not. In some cases, extraction of permanent teeth is necessary, especially in those cases where there is a lack of space for the accommodation of all the teeth in the arch. The result should be a harmonious, pleasant profile, with united lips without muscular effort and perfect dental harmony. When properly indicated, the extractions do not cause any harm to the patient.
Does the appliance cause tooth decay?
The use of a fixed appliance requires special care by the user. The brackets do not cause caries but rather the food residues retained in the appliance and are not removed with good oral hygiene.
A good soft toothbrush, dental floss, pipe cleaner, oral irrigator (oral jet) and mouthwash containing fluoride should be routine after each meal.